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Spirometry Simplified

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Module 1: Basics Of Spirometry

Chapter 1: Delivering life from air:
In this chapter you will learn in brief, the anatomy and function of the lungs and about the tests that measure the lung functions.

Chapter 2: Lung Volumes:
Before learning about spirometry, it is important to understand the different lung volumes and about the volumes that are measurable by spirometry.

Chapter 3: Evolution of Spirometry:
A brief history about the invention of the spirometer and its evolution to the present day sophisticated yet simple equipment.

Chapter 4: Volume Time Graph:
Volume time graph is one of the two graphs that we get during spirometry. Learn in detail about this graph and the volumes that it gives us.

Chapter 5: Flow Volume Loop:
The flow volume loop on spirometry is a very important graph which plots flow against volume. We get two important flow rates from this graph which helps us identify obstructive airways disease. 

Chapter 6: Summary of Spirometry Parameters:
This chapter quickly summarizes all the Spirometric parameters.

Chapter 7: Applications of Spirometry:
Spirometry has a varied application not only for diagnosis of obstructive lung diseases but also for grading their severity, detecting restrictive lung diseases, detecting Bronchiolitis and also intrathoracic and extrathoracic upper airways obstruction. In most cases it also helps in differentiating between asthma and COPD. Spirometry also helps in deciding the resectability of a lobe/lung for lung resection surgeries. By calculating lung age on spirometry one can motivate smokers to quit smoking. It is also a very good research tool for clinical as well as epidemiological research. 

Module 2: Performing Spirometry


Chapter 1: Introduction: 

In this chapter, we will take you through the step by step procedure to perform spirometry in your clinic.

Chapter 2: Setting up spirometry in your clinic:

It is very easy to convert your existing clinic in to a Spirometry clinic. In this chapter you will learn about all the things that would be required to set up a Spirometry Clinic.  

Chapter 3: Calibration Check:

Before conducting the test it is essential to ensure that the equipment is in good condition and is giving accurate readings. This is important to avoid mis diagnosis of your patients. Calibration check of the spirometer is a good way to ensure its accuracy. In this chapter you will learn about the importance of calibration check, the procedure and frequency of calibration checks.

Chapter 4: Contraindications:

This chapter covers the absolute and relative contraindications for spirometry which should be inquired into before subjecting the patient/subject to spirometry.

Chapter 5: Predicted values:

What are the normal values of the lung volumes? The answer is none! The lung volumes change according to the race, gender, age and height and to decide whether the values are normal or not, we need to compare them to the predicted normal values for the particular race, gender age and height. Learn about this concept in detail and calculate your own predicted volumes using the lung volumes calculator in this chapter.

Chapter 6: Conducting the test:

After all the preliminary preparation of the spirometry clinic, the equipment and the patient, in this chapter you will learn about the maneuvers that the patient needs to perform during the test. For simplicity, we have divided the procedure into 4 simple steps. Learn about the most important aspect of spirometry - effectively communicating to the patient on what exactly needs to be done and getting the procedure performed by the patient. 


Module 3: Quality Assurance


Chapter 1: Introduction to QA in Spirometry:

Quality Assurance in spirometry does not mean QA of the equipment but means checking whether the patient has performed the test correctly and the graphs should be accepted for interpretation or not.

Chapter 2: Acceptable Spirometry Graphs:

In this chapter you will learn about the common mistakes that a patient may commit while performing the test. These little mistakes can give us erroneously high or low lung volumes. You will also learn how to recognize these mistakes by looking at the graphs. Thus by inspecting you can decide whether the graphs are of good quality or the patient needs to repeat the test.

Chapter 3: Criteria for repeatability:

Repeatable or reproducible graphs ensure that the patient has given his/her best effort and the test is suitable for interpretation. In this chapter you will learn about the criteria for repeatability.

Chapter 4: Grading the Spirometry Test:

Depending upon the acceptability and repeatability of the tests the tests can be graded from Grade A to Grade F. Interpretation of the spirometry should be done in the in the wake of these grades. In this chapter you will learn the importance of grading the graphs and its significance in clinical practice.


Module 4: Interpreting Spirometry

It is wise to interpret a spirometry report oneself rather than relying upon the report generated by the equipment which many a times may not corroborate with the history and clinical examination.

In this module you will learn some simple tricks to interpret spirometry. By merely looking at the graphs you will be able to come to a tentative diagnosis about the patient’s condition. You can confirm this by following a simple diagnostic algorithm. You will also learn to perform the reversibility test and grade the severity of asthma and COPD

Module 5: Case Studies

In this module some real life case studies will be discussed which will highlight the importance of correlating the Spirometry report with the clinical history and examination before coming to a conclusion about the diagnosis.

Module 6: Spirometry Technical Guide

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